Genital Herpes (Herpes Simplex Virus)

Genital herpes is a contagious viral infection that affects an estimated 23 percent of adult Americans. Each year, as many as 500,000 new cases are believed to occur. The infection is caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV).

There are two types of HSV, and both can cause the symptoms of genital herpes. HSV type 1 most commonly causes sores on the lips (known as fever blisters or cold sores), but it can cause genital infections as well. HSV type 2 most often causes genital sores, but it also can infect the mouth.

HSV 1 and 2 can both produce sores in and around the vaginal area, on the penis, around the anal opening, and on the buttocks or thighs. Occasionally, sores also
appear on other parts of the body where broken skin has come into contact with HSV. The virus remains in certain nerve cells of the body for life, causing periodic symptoms in some people.

Genital herpes infection usually is acquired by sexual contact with someone who has an outbreak of herpes sores in the genital area. People with oral herpes can
transmit the infection to the genital area of a partner during oral-genital sex. Herpes infections also can be transmitted by a person who is infected with HSV but has no noticeable symptoms. The virus is spread only rarely, if at all, by contact with objects such as a toilet seat or hot tub.


Most people who are infected with HSV never develop any symptoms. When symptoms do occur, they vary widely from person to person. Symptoms of a first episode of genital herpes usually appear within two to 10 days of exposure to the virus and last an average of two to three weeks. Early symptoms can include:

  • Itching or burning sensation.
  • Pain in the legs, buttocks, or genital area.
  • Vaginal discharge.
  • Feeling of pressure in the abdominal region.

Within a few days, sores (also called lesions) appear at the site of infection. Lesions also can occur on the cervix in women or in the urinary passage in men.
These small red bumps may develop into blisters or painful open sores. Over a period of days, the sores become crusted and then heal without scarring. Other symptoms that may accompany a primary episode of genital herpes can include:

  • Fever.
  • Headache.
  • Muscle aches.
  • Painful or difficult urination.
  • Vaginal discharge.
  • Swollen glands in the groin area.


In genital herpes, after invading the skin or mucous membranes, the virus travels to the sensory nerves at the end of the spinal cord. Even after the skin lesions
have disappeared, the virus remains inside the nerve cells in an inactive, latent state. In most people, the virus will reactivate from time to time. It travels along the nerves to the skin, where it multiplies on the surface at or near the site of the original herpes sores, causing new sores to erupt. It also can reactivate
without causing any visible sores. At these times, small amounts of the virus may be shed at or near sites of the original infection, in genital secretions, or from barely noticeable lesions. This shedding is infrequent, however, and usually lasts only a day, but it is sufficient to infect a sex partner.

The symptoms of recurrent episodes usually are milder than those of the first episode and typically last about a week. A recurrent outbreak may be signaled by a
tingling sensation or itching in the genital area, or pain in the buttocks or down the leg. These are called prodromal symptoms, and, for some people, they can be the most painful and annoying part of a recurrent episode. Sometimes only the prodrome is present and no visible sores develop. At other times, blisters appear that may be very small and barely noticeable, or they may break into open sores that crust over and then disappear.

The frequency and severity of the recurrent episodes vary greatly. While some people recognize only one or two recurrences in a lifetime, others may experience
several outbreaks a year. The number and pattern of recurrences often change over time for an individual. Scientists do not know what causes the virus to reactivate. Although some people with herpes report that their recurrences are brought on by other illness, stress, or menstruation, recurrences often are not
predictable. In some cases, exposure to sunlight is associated with recurrences.


The sores of genital herpes in its active stage are usually visible to the naked eye. Several laboratory tests may be needed, however, to distinguish herpes sores from other infections. The most accurate method of diagnosis is by viral culture, in which a new sore is swabbed or scraped and the sample is added to a  laboratory culture containing healthy cells. When examined under a microscope after one to two days, the cells show changes that indicate growth of the herpes virus.

A newer, more rapid, but somewhat less accurate way of diagnosing herpes involves detection of viral protein components in lesion swabs. These tests should be
done when the sores first appear to ensure the most reliable results. Other laboratory tests also are available to physicians. It is important to note that because clinicians commonly fail to detect HSV in an active sore, a negative virus culture does not always mean that a person is not infected with the virus.

A blood test cannot determine whether a person has an active genital herpes infection. A blood test, however, can detect antibodies to the virus, which indicate
that the person has been infected with HSV at some time and has produced antibodies to it. (Antibodies are proteins made by a person’s immune system to fight infections.) Unlike antibodies to some other viruses, however, antibodies to HSV do not totally protect an individual against another infection with a different strain or a different type of herpes virus, nor do they prevent a reactivation of the latent virus. Antibody tests are the best way to determine if a person is an HSV carrier. The standard blood tests only reliably indicate whether a patient has had a herpes infection, not the type of HSV.

New blood tests have been developed that can distinguish whether a person has had prior type 1 or type 2 infection, or both. However, these tests are available mainly in research hospitals and are not used routinely in the doctor’s office.


During an active herpes episode, whether primary or recurrent, it is important to follow a few simple steps to speed healing and to avoid spreading the infection to other sites of the body or to other people:

  • Keep the infected area clean and dry to prevent secondary infections from developing.
  • Try to avoid touching the sores; wash hands after contact with the sores.
  • Avoid sexual contact from the time symptoms are first recognized until the sores are completely healed, i.e., the scab has fallen off and new skin has formed over the site of the lesion.

Researchers have shown that the oral form of acyclovir (Zovirax®) is a superior and safe treatment that helps patients with first or recurrent episodes of genital herpes. The oral form of the drug is taken five times a day and markedly shortens the course of the first episode and limits the severity of recurrences, particularly if taken within 24 hours of onset of symptoms. People who have very frequent recurrent episodes of the disease can take oral acyclovir twice daily for up to one  year at a time to suppress the virus’ activity and prevent most recurrences. After a year, it is reasonable to stop the medication and only to restart it if frequent recurrences resume. Acyclovir is not a cure for herpes—the virus remains in the body; but while taken regularly, the medicine interferes with the virus’ ability
to reproduce itself.

The U. S. Food and Drug Administration recently approved two new drugs, famciclovir (Famvir®) and valacyclovir (Valtrex®), to treat recurrent episodes of genital herpes. Famciclovir also has been approved for use in suppressing viral activity and preventing recurrences. These two drugs can be taken less frequently than acyclovir, i.e., three times a day for recurrent episodes and twice daily to help stop further recurrences.


Genital herpes Causes – Mayo Clinic

Common Symptoms of Genital Herpes in Men and Women – WebMD

How to Get Rid of Genital Herpes

Zovirax (acyclovir) Uses, Dosage, Side Effects –

Posted in: Condition & Remedies

How To Lose Thigh Fat

Recent survey depicts that, it is not possible for human body to break down fat present in the body with that ease, particularly thigh’s fat. Human body utilizes other food sources to generate energy first and then, tries to burn the fats.

Hence, a huge quantity of fat that humans eat gets stored in the body. In addition, if a person is female, then bulk quantity of fats get accumulated on thighs, waist, hips and butt.

Excess deposition of fat on thighs leads to formation of cellulite. Apart from this, bulky thighs can cause rheumatic problems in knees, swelling in legs, and people may feel tired after walking a few steps. Hence, individuals who want to lose thigh’s fat need to follow few tips, mentioned further.

Difficulty Level

Though it is difficult to lose thigh fat but it is not impossible. You can lose thigh fat provided you stay adhere to these steps for long.


    • Lower the intake of frozen foods: People can get rid of fat on thighs, if they lower down intake of frozen food, junk food such as fries, pizzas and potato chips. It is because these foodstuffs contain high quantity of salt, which leads to retention of fats in thighs. Watch out for these factors, because such things can havoc the body weight too.
    • Increase the intake of iron: Other way to lose thigh’s fat is by consuming food that contains higher quantity of iron. Mostly, vegetarians find it difficult to lose fat, because of their dietary habits. Consume vegetables such as spinach, broccoli, tomatoes and cabbage. Fresh fruits such as fig, guava, berries, and apricot have high iron content.
    • Quit drinking alcohol: Individuals can lose thigh’s fat by reducing the intake of alcohol. If people drink huge quantities of alcoholic beverages, even at least one time in week, the liver dumps the surplus toxins in bloodstream. It then deposits the fat form body cells in thighs. So, avoid consuming huge alcohol quantity at one go. Drink lot of warm water, it burns out fat and thus, helps to lose thigh’s fat.

If you follow these steps then you will be able to lose thigh fat easily.

Posted in: Condition & Remedies

What is a Stye and how should it be Treated


A Stye doesn’t warrant panic or a rush to the doctors office unless there are other complications or if the stye has lasted over a month untreated.

A Stye presents itself often as a pimple on the edge of or just under either the top or bottom eyelid. It may or may not have pain associated with it. There may be some crustiness in the mornings. The overall condition of the eyelid may or may not be swollen.

A Stye is basically a gland that gets blocked and becomes infected or noticeably irritated by what blocks it. It is often caused by poor eyelid hygiene, wood smoke, animal germs, diabetes (mellitus or type 2), stress and/or seborrhea.

Additionally, “Studies have shown that those who have high levels of blood lipids are more susceptible to blockages in the oil glands, including those of the eyelid and, therefore, are more likely to develop a sty.” (

The temptation to pop it or lance it should be resisted since this can spread the infection. Only a trained medical person should do any lancing and only if it doesn’t resolve itself with basic at-home care. And there is an antibiotic-steroid ointment that should be applied first before any risky treatment like lancing.

It will usually goes away in a weeks time with proper treatment it is just a stye. If it doesn’t go away or if it happens repetitively have a doctor do an HISTOPATHOLOGIC examination to rule out cysts or cancer.

Terms also used to describe styes are Hordeolum and Chalazion.

1. I use a Visine advanced formula to keep it clean.
2. And a regular application of a heat compress every day to reduce swelling. How long one holds the compress on depends partially on tolerance. There appears to be some disagreement as to how long to hold it, but 15 minutes is probably the maximum. Less if a person has Diabetes (5 to 10). And this should be repeated about 4 times each day until it diminishes significantly or altogether.

1. Don’t share a used nose tissue with the eyes. There’s a bacteria called Staphylococcus aureus that is often found in the noses of humans and many animals which can promote a stye.
2. Wash hands often. After petting animals, rubbing nose, handling meat or other toxic or irritating substances are definite times to wash hands.
3. Keep eyes clean. On days where there is high pollen or debris in the wind, a simple eye wash helps. Washing off make up before bed is also useful.
4. Good blood sugar control by those who have diabetes is useful.


Sty – Mayo Clini

How to Get Rid of A Stye


Posted in: Condition & Remedies

COPD Life Expectancy

COPD is a significant lung illness with no prompt cure; however, an early COPD medical diagnosis will enable your medical professional the possibility to bring your symptoms under control making it much easier for you to obtain back to living a full, efficient life. Find more details about COPD – Blue bloater and pink puffer.

The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Association (Singapore) and other international agencies such as the Worldwide Effort for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COPD) strongly encourage cigarette smokers and ex-smokers, particularly those with consistent cough and/or shortness of breath to undergo straightforward lung function test called spectrometry, which is a gold standard for COPD medical diagnosis.

Corticosteroids are still made use of in some cases for COPD treatment, however they’re just appropriate for a small group of COPD clients. Corticosteroids enhance lung function for concerning 1 in 10 clients. They’re prescribed much more often for asthma, and they could have adverse effects which include upper respiratory infections, problems and pharyngitis.

Aggravation of COPD refers to a medical disorder featuring all of a sudden worsened consistent obstructive pulmonary symptoms. COPD is a group of troubles manifesting with some widespread symptoms like shortness of breath, chest tightness and efficient cough. When these symptoms all of a sudden come to be extreme, the medical disorder is termed as COPD exacerbation.

Chronic Bronchitis is also a part of COPD. Chronic respiratory disease is usually a daily cough with spewing up of mucous. Typically, if you have emphysema, you have the persistent respiratory disease. They go together. With the respiratory disease, your lungs puffiness and get inflamed, which makes it harder for you to breathe because it tightens or impairs the airways.

When breathing an individual who deals with COPD could hear a wheezing sound in their chest. This induced by the air passing through the lungs. This is because the airways have actually been partially shut out. Rapid fat loss is also an indicator of COPD, because the lung has to exhaust more calories to do straightforward jobs.

Posted in: Condition & Remedies

COPD: Breathless, Not Helpless

Those who are left in a wheelchair due to a chronic disease (COPD) that no longer makes it possible for them to move around without aid, can quickly start to feel alone and frustrated with their lives.

The normal tasks that most people take for granted quickly become out of their reach such as using the restroom, driving a car, or simply taking a walk as weather can quickly influence their ability to get outdoors. Instead, they are left in a world in which they are dependent on someone else for their every need which can quickly breed resentment, hate, and self-loathing.

Most of these feelings result from an overwhelming loss of control over their life that the illness or malady leads them with, and the even worse part is that since they are suffering from a chronic ailment there is no solution or future in sight.

This leads in turn, to even more apathy, hopelessness, and overall deep sunken depression as the light at the end of the tunnel quickly gets shut off. However, becoming homebound in a wheelchair does not have to mean that you are alone, if you develop the right coping mechanisms and tools to help gain back your sense of control.

The first thing that most health advisors will recommend to someone that is homebound in a wheelchair or homebound period, is that they seek out a fuller understanding of their health condition. Even though a health malady may be termed chronic, this word is not synonymous with fatal.

It is true that for most people they will have to live with the results of the chronic disease for the rest of their lives up until death, but it is also true that usually they have plenty of years of life left before this occurs.

With this fact in mind, now is the time to take back control of your life because even if your illness has taken control of certain aspects of your body it has not taken control of your life and neither will it be able to unless you allow it that power.

Your mind, emotions, and enjoyment out of life are still all in your hands if you learn to understand your disease and learn effective coping mechanisms that will help take the place of the hopelessness and anger that comes from the illness. Instead of getting angry at those around you, get angry at your illness and rage war against it by taking back control of your days.

One of the best ways to do this is to find a support group of people who suffer from the same condition as you that can offer their advice, well placed sympathy, understanding, and simple friendship.

Although this may seem hard to do if you are homebound, with the advent of the internet there are now many support groups and forums online for those that take advantage of the opportunity to get involved. Here you will not only find a wealth of support, but also a wealth of information that when combined can give you back your lease on life.

Posted in: Condition & Remedies

Passing urine drug tests

More and more companies are performing urine drug tests nowadays to determine whether the individuals they want to hire or their existing employees use drugs. Hence, you may know for example how long does alcohol stay in your system. you may want to know the surefire way that can help you out in passing urine drug tests. Abstinence is the most effective way to pass drug test, but it is not possible for all to stop using drugs completely. However, if you want to pass the drug test, you need to stop using the drug at least a few days before testing. Abstinence can help boost the effectiveness of passing the drug test products available in the market.

Many attempts have been taken by drug users passing the tests. Urine additives, urine substitution and tampering with urine sample are the most common methods used for passing urine test. However, these three methods have significant downsides. Most of the labs detect urine additives easily nowadays. It is very difficult or impossible to substitute urine in professional drug testing facilities, as strict measures are used. If you get caught tarnishing your urine sample, you will be considered as a criminal in most of the states. Hence, detoxification is the safest and most effective way of passing tests.

Detox products are available in many varieties for occasional user, regular user and heavy user. You can choose the product that is suitable to your needs. You can go for permanent detox products or temporary products, according to your situation. If you need to undergo random urine drug test, you need to choose a temporary detox product that starts working within an hour. Permanent detox products are ideal, if your drug testing is schedule after a month.  They contain natural ingredients that flush toxins from your system, making your urine drug free. With herbal detox products, passing urine drug tests is easy and safe. They do not cause any side effects and they are guaranteed to provide negative result in the drug tests.

Posted in: Condition & Remedies

Curing Poison Ivy

The best poison ivy cure is avoiding it in the first place. Once you acquired a poison ivy rash, it is very hard to cure totally. Wearing long sleeved shirts and long pants is always advised if you suspect you may be around ivy. This can be hard, as backpacking often results you to work up quite a bit. Long clothes are also a great way to prevent ticks, so it is more than just poison ivy you’re defending yourself from.

Learn how to recognize the plant. There are pictures of it all over the Internet, and once you’ve looked at it enough times in real life it becomes easy to identify. If you think you’ve been exposed with poison ivy, wash off with soap and water as soon as quickly as possible. Also intensely washing your clothes is necessary. Washing the oil within half an hour after exposure is efficiently a poison ivy cure. There are also some protective poison ivy lotions available in the market that can improve your resistance.

Once you’ve the rash appeared, it’s going to be difficult to remove, but there are some poison ivy cures that will speed up its removal. One measure that works great is hot water. Just run the infected area under some hot water for ten or more minutes numerous times a day, and within five days or less the rash is removed, whereas it would otherwise be around for much longer of time.

There are many good home remedies and natural alternatives that can provide relief from a poison ivy rash but treat with care when searching for these treatments on the Internet because there are a few beliefs about home treatment out there that can end up resulting problems worse than just the original one. One of these is bleach, and you should never utilize this product on your skin during any instances or chemical burns may be placed on top of the rash.
One poison ivy cure is Calamine lotion, and this product is expensive but is very efficient in eradicating the itching, even though you may be seen around with pink skin in times of the treatment. A poison ivy rash is the product of the oils from the plant coming exposed to the skin and making a burn on the surface layers. This will make the skin to become irritated, blistered, and produce an intense itching and burning in your skin. The top layers of skin will slough off and peel away because of the exposure with the oils, and it takes a period of time for healthy skin to change the damaged surface of skin.

A hot shower can give the same advantage and relief, and this will prevent the itching for hours after you use this treatment. An oatmeal bath is a great treatment for poison ivy, because it will relieve the itching while aiding your skin. Some don’t advise this treatment method for certain reasons.
Another efficient cure, or home remedy, for the related discomfort and itching is to create a paste from baking soda and water. This paste should be thickly placed to the infected skin to give penetrating comfort and aid to dry out the rash, which will remove it.

Posted in: Condition & Remedies

How to tell if a Watermelon is Ripe

Once a watermelon is picked, that’s it. It’s not going to ripen any more while it’s on your shelf. So it’s important to be able to determine if a watermelon is ripe before you buy it.


Once you know what you’re looking for, this is your best ripeness clue of all. But never rely on that alone. It’s hard enough to tell if a watermelon is ripe that you really should use every single ripeness clue you’ve got.

When watermelons start getting properly ripe, their rind colour changes a little. The part of the rind which sat next to the ground when the watermelon was still on the vine turns a yellowish colour, so a good, ripe watermelon should have a yellowish or even yellowish-brown patch on one side.

If you look closely, you’ll also see that in some watermelons, the green bands have broken up at one end of the watermelon. That means it’s ripe.

If the watermelon’s still all the same colour, it’s not ripe enough. Skip over any watermelon like that.

Skip over any watermelons where the patch is stilil greenish-white instead of greenish-yellow. These are starting to get sort of ripe, but they’re not really ripe yet. Why look for good enough when you can do better?


Ripe watermelons are heavy watermelons. Your typical ripe watermelon is more than 90 percent water. So your ripest watermelon’s always going to be the heaviest of the bunch when you’re comparing same-sized watermelons.


This is that famous thumping of the watermelon. What you’re listening for is a dull sound. That’s because of all the water inside a ripe watermelon.

You already know an unripe watermelon doesn’t have as much water inside. That means it gives off a different sound when you thump it. It sounds tighter and more hollow than a ripe watermelon.

Growing watermelons

You’ve got a couple of bonus clues if you grow your own watermelons. The big one is the attachment of the watermelon to the vine. The part of the vine which is closest to the watermelon begins to shrivel up when the watermelon’s ready to harvest.

As you get more experienced in growing watermelons, you’ll also see that the rind changes as the watermelon ripens. The rind of a ripe watermelon won’t bounce back when you push it a little with your thumb. The outermost green skin also gets a bit loose, so you’ll be able to see the green-white colour right below it.

Of course, if parts of the watermelon start to get soft or spongy, that’s a bad sign. Just skip over that watermelon completely or send it off to compost.

Storing watermelons

Watermelons won’t ripen after you pick them, but they can spoil. Keep them at coolish house temperatures, and use them as soon as you can.

Posted in: Condition & Remedies

The secrets to cooking easy-peeling hard boiled eggs

Hard-boiled eggs are great standby for summer salads. They also make a simple sandwich filling which is ideal for busy working parents and their hungry school-kids. There are some golden rules to follow which will help make your hard-boiled eggs easy-to-peel.

Don’t use eggs straight from the fridge

So long as eggs are kept cool, there is no need to keep them refrigerated. However, most people these days automatically store them in their fridge-tidy. If eggs are placed in boiling water straight from the fridge, the center of the egg takes longer to cook properly. This means that instead of getting a hard-boiled egg, you will end up with a soft center. Ideally, you should keep your eggs in a larder at room temperature. Unfortunately, a lot of modern kitchens are too small to have this facility. So the best thing to do is to prepare ahead. The evening before you intend to boil some eggs, take them out of your fridge and leave them in a bowl on your worktop.

Don’t plunge the eggs into boiling water

In order for the eggs to cook properly and evenly, the temperature of the eggs and the water should be similar to start with. Put the eggs in a saucepan and cover with cold water from the faucet. Do not pre-boil water or use iced water. If you add boiling water to cool eggs, the shells will crack and the contents of the egg will seep into the boiling water.

Use a timer

It’s so easy to put the eggs on to boil and then forget about them. You may have assumed that overcooking the eggs doesn’t matter. But it does! Overcooked boiled eggs taste hard and rubbery. Hard boiled eggs take just ten minutes to cook (that’s when you use eggs at room temperature and water at room temperature.) The only way to be sure that you are not overcooking the eggs is to use a timer.

Remove the boiled eggs promptly from the saucepan

If you leave the eggs in the saucepan after the ten minutes is up, they will continue to cook. In order to prevent this, you need to act promptly. Fill a second saucepan half full of cold water. Take the eggs out of the boiling water and plunge them into the pan of cold water. This has the effect of making the white and yolk of the boiled egg contract slightly. The shell itself remains unchanged. It is only the inside of the egg contracts.

Remove the shell while the egg is still hot

To remove the egg shell from the freshly boiled eggs, roll them gently on a wooden board. Because the insides have contracted slightly, the shell separates very easily. And this is the final secret of making an easy peeling hard-boiled egg. If you leave the eggs to cool down before removing their shell, the white and yolk bounce back. The minuscule gap that was created by the internal contraction is lost and the shell and white of the eggs become very difficult to separate.

Posted in: Cooking

A fermentation lock: a small but essential piece of wine making equipment

A fermentation lock is an inexpensive but essential item for anyone making wine at home.

Fermentation is the process by which yeast breaks down sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide, and begins at the primary fermentation stage, when grapes or other fruit are mixed with sugar and yeast in a large container. After a week or so, the fruit pulp is removed, and the young wine is siphoned into carboys, large glass or plastic containers which act as secondary fermentation chambers.

The carboy needs to be closed to prevent dust particles, bacteria, wild yeast, or insects such as fruit flies from contaminating the wine, and perhaps turning it to vinegar, and also to prevent the flavor being spoiled as a result of excess oxidation. At the same time, since the wine is still fermenting, it is still producing carbon dioxide which, if not allowed to escape, will cause a pressure build-up inside the carboy, and create a potential explosion hazard.

The simplest solution is to cover the top of the carboy with an uninflated balloon by fastening the neck of the balloon firmly around the neck of the container. As carbon dioxide rises from the fermenting liquid, it will inflate the balloon, and can be released by simply pulling open the neck of the balloon for a few seconds. However, this is not the best solution because the balloon may impart a rubbery flavor to the wine.

The preferred method is to use a fermentation lock, a bent glass tube designed to hold liquid which will form an airlock to protect the fermenting wine while allowing carbon dioxide to bubble out.

A fermentation lock can be purchased from a beer- and wine-making supplier and is quite simple to use. It comes with a plug which fits into the neck of the carboy, and which has a hole in the center. Simply insert the end of the fermentation lock into the plug and then half fill the lock with liquid.

A wine maker who does not have access to a wine-making supplier can make a home made fermentation lock by running a length of flexible plastic tubing from the carboy into a liquid-filled glass jar.

For wine-making, the recommended liquid for the fermentation lock is the same sanitizing mixture, such as sulphite solution, which is used to sterilize wine making equipment. Another option is glycerine, which evaporates more slowly than sanitizing solution. However, wine makers who are concerned that the liquid in the fermentation lock might be sucked back into the wine may prefer to use vodka, a sanitary alternative which will not adversely affect the flavor of the wine.

Once the fermentation lock is in place, it needs to be kept half full of liquid, so it should be checked regularly and topped up as necessary to compensate for evaporation. When the carbon dioxide stops bubbling out, fermentation is complete, and the wine is ready to bottle.

Posted in: Cuisine and Food